Рассматривается установка последней версии Python на Linux (Ubuntu, Debian, Raspberry и т. п.) из исходных кодов. Вы можете загрузить последнюю версию Python с сайта python.org

Разархивируйте полученный с сайта python.org архив с исходными кодами. Откройте в папке с исходным кодом Python терминал и последовательно выполните следующие команды:

./configure --with-tcltk-includes='-I/opt/ActiveTcl-8.6/include' --with-tcltk-libs='./usr/include/tcl8.6libtcl8.6.solibtk8.6.so /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu' --enable-optimizations

make -j 4

sudo make install

Возможно, в Вашей системе путь установки библиотеки tcl другой. Тогда попробуйте выполнить следующую команду:

./configure --with-tcltk-includes='-I/opt/ActiveTcl-8.6/include' --with-tcltk-libs='/opt/ActiveTcl-8.6/lib/libtcl8.6.so /opt/ActiveTcl-8.6/lib/libtk8.6.so'

Обновите pip:

python3.10 -m pip install --upgrade pip

Возможно, перед установкой Python, вам необходимо будет установить следующие пакеты:

sudo apt install build-essential zlib1g-dev libncurses5-dev libgdbm-dev libnss3-dev libssl-dev libreadline-dev libreadline6-dev libffi-dev libsqlite3-dev libncurses5-dev wget libbz2-dev libdb5.3-dev libgdbm-dev libssl-dev libbz2-dev libexpat1-dev liblzma-dev tk-dev tk8.6-dev libx11-dev tk8.6

Где, sudo apt install tk8.6 должен установить библиотеку Tcl/Tk в /usr/bin/wish8.6.

Следующая информация получена из дистрибутива Python 3.10.


This is Python version 3.10.4

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   :alt: CPython build status on Travis CI
   :target: https://travis-ci.com/python/cpython

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   :alt: CPython build status on GitHub Actions
   :target: https://github.com/python/cpython/actions

.. image:: https://dev.azure.com/python/cpython/_apis/build/status/Azure%20Pipelines%20CI?branchName=master
   :alt: CPython build status on Azure DevOps
   :target: https://dev.azure.com/python/cpython/_build/latest?definitionId=4&branchName=master

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   :alt: Python Discourse chat
   :target: https://discuss.python.org/

Copyright (c) 2001-2022 Python Software Foundation.  All rights reserved.

See the end of this file for further copyright and license information.

.. contents::

General Information

- Website: https://www.python.org
- Source code: https://github.com/python/cpython
- Issue tracker: https://bugs.python.org
- Documentation: https://docs.python.org
- Developer's Guide: https://devguide.python.org/

Contributing to CPython

For more complete instructions on contributing to CPython development,
see the `Developer Guide`_.

.. _Developer Guide: https://devguide.python.org/

Using Python

Installable Python kits, and information about using Python, are available at

.. _python.org: https://www.python.org/

Build Instructions

On Unix, Linux, BSD, macOS, and Cygwin::

    make test
    sudo make install

This will install Python as ``python3``.

You can pass many options to the configure script; run ``./configure --help``
to find out more.  On macOS case-insensitive file systems and on Cygwin,
the executable is called ``python.exe``; elsewhere it's just ``python``.

Building a complete Python installation requires the use of various
additional third-party libraries, depending on your build platform and
configure options.  Not all standard library modules are buildable or
useable on all platforms.  Refer to the
`Install dependencies <https://devguide.python.org/setup/#install-dependencies>`_
section of the `Developer Guide`_ for current detailed information on
dependencies for various Linux distributions and macOS.

On macOS, there are additional configure and build options related
to macOS framework and universal builds.  Refer to `Mac/README.rst

On Windows, see `PCbuild/readme.txt

If you wish, you can create a subdirectory and invoke configure from there.
For example::

    mkdir debug
    cd debug
    ../configure --with-pydebug
    make test

(This will fail if you *also* built at the top-level directory.  You should do
a ``make clean`` at the top-level first.)

To get an optimized build of Python, ``configure --enable-optimizations``
before you run ``make``.  This sets the default make targets up to enable
Profile Guided Optimization (PGO) and may be used to auto-enable Link Time
Optimization (LTO) on some platforms.  For more details, see the sections

Profile Guided Optimization

PGO takes advantage of recent versions of the GCC or Clang compilers.  If used,
either via ``configure --enable-optimizations`` or by manually running
``make profile-opt`` regardless of configure flags, the optimized build
process will perform the following steps:

The entire Python directory is cleaned of temporary files that may have
resulted from a previous compilation.

An instrumented version of the interpreter is built, using suitable compiler
flags for each flavor. Note that this is just an intermediary step.  The
binary resulting from this step is not good for real-life workloads as it has
profiling instructions embedded inside.

After the instrumented interpreter is built, the Makefile will run a training
workload.  This is necessary in order to profile the interpreter's execution.
Note also that any output, both stdout and stderr, that may appear at this step
is suppressed.

The final step is to build the actual interpreter, using the information
collected from the instrumented one.  The end result will be a Python binary
that is optimized; suitable for distribution or production installation.

Link Time Optimization

Enabled via configure's ``--with-lto`` flag.  LTO takes advantage of the
ability of recent compiler toolchains to optimize across the otherwise
arbitrary ``.o`` file boundary when building final executables or shared
libraries for additional performance gains.

What's New

We have a comprehensive overview of the changes in the `What's New in Python
3.10 <https://docs.python.org/3.10/whatsnew/3.10.html>`_ document.  For a more
detailed change log, read `Misc/NEWS
<https://github.com/python/cpython/blob/master/Misc/NEWS.d>`_, but a full
accounting of changes can only be gleaned from the `commit history

If you want to install multiple versions of Python, see the section below
entitled "Installing multiple versions".


`Documentation for Python 3.10 <https://docs.python.org/3.10/>`_ is online,
updated daily.

It can also be downloaded in many formats for faster access.  The documentation
is downloadable in HTML, PDF, and reStructuredText formats; the latter version
is primarily for documentation authors, translators, and people with special
formatting requirements.

For information about building Python's documentation, refer to `Doc/README.rst

Converting From Python 2.x to 3.x

Significant backward incompatible changes were made for the release of Python
3.0, which may cause programs written for Python 2 to fail when run with Python
3.  For more information about porting your code from Python 2 to Python 3, see
the `Porting HOWTO <https://docs.python.org/3/howto/pyporting.html>`_.


To test the interpreter, type ``make test`` in the top-level directory.  The
test set produces some output.  You can generally ignore the messages about
skipped tests due to optional features which can't be imported.  If a message
is printed about a failed test or a traceback or core dump is produced,
something is wrong.

By default, tests are prevented from overusing resources like disk space and
memory.  To enable these tests, run ``make testall``.

If any tests fail, you can re-run the failing test(s) in verbose mode.  For
example, if ``test_os`` and ``test_gdb`` failed, you can run::

    make test TESTOPTS="-v test_os test_gdb"

If the failure persists and appears to be a problem with Python rather than
your environment, you can `file a bug report <https://bugs.python.org>`_ and
include relevant output from that command to show the issue.

See `Running & Writing Tests <https://devguide.python.org/runtests/>`_
for more on running tests.

Installing multiple versions

On Unix and Mac systems if you intend to install multiple versions of Python
using the same installation prefix (``--prefix`` argument to the configure
script) you must take care that your primary python executable is not
overwritten by the installation of a different version.  All files and
directories installed using ``make altinstall`` contain the major and minor
version and can thus live side-by-side.  ``make install`` also creates
``${prefix}/bin/python3`` which refers to ``${prefix}/bin/pythonX.Y``.  If you
intend to install multiple versions using the same prefix you must decide which
version (if any) is your "primary" version.  Install that version using ``make
install``.  Install all other versions using ``make altinstall``.

For example, if you want to install Python 2.7, 3.6, and 3.10 with 3.10 being the
primary version, you would execute ``make install`` in your 3.10 build directory
and ``make altinstall`` in the others.

Issue Tracker and Mailing List

Bug reports are welcome!  You can use the `issue tracker
<https://bugs.python.org>`_ to report bugs, and/or submit pull requests `on
GitHub <https://github.com/python/cpython>`_.

You can also follow development discussion on the `python-dev mailing list

Proposals for enhancement

If you have a proposal to change Python, you may want to send an email to the
`comp.lang.python`_ or `python-ideas`_ mailing lists for initial feedback.  A
Python Enhancement Proposal (PEP) may be submitted if your idea gains ground.
All current PEPs, as well as guidelines for submitting a new PEP, are listed at
`python.org/dev/peps/ <https://www.python.org/dev/peps/>`_.

.. _python-ideas: https://mail.python.org/mailman/listinfo/python-ideas/
.. _comp.lang.python: https://mail.python.org/mailman/listinfo/python-list

Release Schedule

See :pep:`619` for Python 3.10 release details.

Copyright and License Information

Copyright (c) 2001-2022 Python Software Foundation.  All rights reserved.

Copyright (c) 2000 BeOpen.com.  All rights reserved.

Copyright (c) 1995-2001 Corporation for National Research Initiatives.  All
rights reserved.

Copyright (c) 1991-1995 Stichting Mathematisch Centrum.  All rights reserved.

See the `LICENSE <https://github.com/python/cpython/blob/master/LICENSE>`_ for
information on the history of this software, terms & conditions for usage, and a

This Python distribution contains *no* GNU General Public License (GPL) code,
so it may be used in proprietary projects.  There are interfaces to some GNU
code but these are entirely optional.

All trademarks referenced herein are property of their respective holders.

configure --help

./configure --help
`configure' configures python 3.10 to adapt to many kinds of systems.

Usage: ./configure [OPTION]... [VAR=VALUE]...

To assign environment variables (e.g., CC, CFLAGS...), specify them as
VAR=VALUE.  See below for descriptions of some of the useful variables.

Defaults for the options are specified in brackets.

  -h, --help              display this help and exit
      --help=short        display options specific to this package
      --help=recursive    display the short help of all the included packages
  -V, --version           display version information and exit
  -q, --quiet, --silent   do not print `checking ...' messages
      --cache-file=FILE   cache test results in FILE [disabled]
  -C, --config-cache      alias for `--cache-file=config.cache'
  -n, --no-create         do not create output files
      --srcdir=DIR        find the sources in DIR [configure dir or `..']

Installation directories:
  --prefix=PREFIX         install architecture-independent files in PREFIX
  --exec-prefix=EPREFIX   install architecture-dependent files in EPREFIX

By default, `make install' will install all the files in
`/usr/local/bin', `/usr/local/lib' etc.  You can specify
an installation prefix other than `/usr/local' using `--prefix',
for instance `--prefix=$HOME'.

For better control, use the options below.

Fine tuning of the installation directories:
  --bindir=DIR            user executables [EPREFIX/bin]
  --sbindir=DIR           system admin executables [EPREFIX/sbin]
  --libexecdir=DIR        program executables [EPREFIX/libexec]
  --sysconfdir=DIR        read-only single-machine data [PREFIX/etc]
  --sharedstatedir=DIR    modifiable architecture-independent data [PREFIX/com]
  --localstatedir=DIR     modifiable single-machine data [PREFIX/var]
  --runstatedir=DIR       modifiable per-process data [LOCALSTATEDIR/run]
  --libdir=DIR            object code libraries [EPREFIX/lib]
  --includedir=DIR        C header files [PREFIX/include]
  --oldincludedir=DIR     C header files for non-gcc [/usr/include]
  --datarootdir=DIR       read-only arch.-independent data root [PREFIX/share]
  --datadir=DIR           read-only architecture-independent data [DATAROOTDIR]
  --infodir=DIR           info documentation [DATAROOTDIR/info]
  --localedir=DIR         locale-dependent data [DATAROOTDIR/locale]
  --mandir=DIR            man documentation [DATAROOTDIR/man]
  --docdir=DIR            documentation root [DATAROOTDIR/doc/python]
  --htmldir=DIR           html documentation [DOCDIR]
  --dvidir=DIR            dvi documentation [DOCDIR]
  --pdfdir=DIR            pdf documentation [DOCDIR]
  --psdir=DIR             ps documentation [DOCDIR]

System types:
  --build=BUILD     configure for building on BUILD [guessed]
  --host=HOST       cross-compile to build programs to run on HOST [BUILD]

Optional Features:
  --disable-option-checking  ignore unrecognized --enable/--with options
  --disable-FEATURE       do not include FEATURE (same as --enable-FEATURE=no)
  --enable-FEATURE[=ARG]  include FEATURE [ARG=yes]
                          create a universal binary build. SDKDIR specifies
                          which macOS SDK should be used to perform the build,
                          see Mac/README.rst. (default is no)
                          create a Python.framework rather than a traditional
                          Unix install. optional INSTALLDIR specifies the
                          installation path. see Mac/README.rst (default is
  --enable-shared         enable building a shared Python library (default is
  --enable-profiling      enable C-level code profiling with gprof (default is
  --enable-optimizations  enable expensive, stable optimizations (PGO, etc.)
                          (default is no)
                          support loadable extensions in _sqlite module, see
                          Doc/library/sqlite3.rst (default is no)
  --enable-ipv6           enable ipv6 (with ipv4) support, see
                          Doc/library/socket.rst (default is yes if supported)
                          use big digits (30 or 15 bits) for Python longs
                          (default is system-dependent)]
  --disable-test-modules  don't build nor install test modules

Optional Packages:
  --with-PACKAGE[=ARG]    use PACKAGE [ARG=yes]
  --without-PACKAGE       do not use PACKAGE (same as --with-PACKAGE=no)
                          specify the kind of macOS universal binary that
                          should be created. This option is only valid when
                          --enable-universalsdk is set; options are:
                          ("universal2", "intel-64", "intel-32", "intel",
                          "32-bit", "64-bit", "3-way", or "all") see
                          specify the name for the python framework on macOS
                          only valid when --enable-framework is set. see
                          Mac/README.rst (default is 'Python')
                          compile main() and link Python executable with C++
                          compiler specified in COMPILER (default is $CXX)
  --with-suffix=SUFFIX    set executable suffix to SUFFIX (default is '.exe')
  --with-pydebug          build with Py_DEBUG defined (default is no)
  --with-trace-refs       enable tracing references for debugging purpose
                          (default is no)
  --with-assertions       build with C assertions enabled (default is no)
  --with-lto              enable Link-Time-Optimization in any build (default
                          is no)
                          enable AddressSanitizer memory error detector,
                          'asan' (default is no)
  --with-memory-sanitizer enable MemorySanitizer allocation error detector,
                          'msan' (default is no)
                          enable UndefinedBehaviorSanitizer undefined
                          behaviour detector, 'ubsan' (default is no)
                          select hash algorithm for use in Python/pyhash.c
                          (default is SipHash24)
                           Select the default time zone search path for zoneinfo.TZPATH

  --with-libs='lib1 ...'  link against additional libs (default is no)
  --with-system-expat     build pyexpat module using an installed expat
                          library, see Doc/library/pyexpat.rst (default is no)
  --with-system-ffi       build _ctypes module using an installed ffi library,
                          see Doc/library/ctypes.rst (default is
  --with-system-libmpdec  build _decimal module using an installed libmpdec
                          library, see Doc/library/decimal.rst (default is no)
                          build _decimal module using a coroutine-local rather
                          than a thread-local context (default is yes)
                          override search for Tcl and Tk include files
                          override search for Tcl and Tk libs
                          override order to check db backends for dbm; a valid
                          value is a colon separated string with the backend
                          names `ndbm', `gdbm' and `bdb'.
  --with-doc-strings      enable documentation strings (default is yes)
  --with-pymalloc         enable specialized mallocs (default is yes)
                          enable C locale coercion to a UTF-8 based locale
                          (default is yes)
  --with-valgrind         enable Valgrind support (default is no)
  --with-dtrace           enable DTrace support (default is no)
  --with-libm=STRING      override libm math library to STRING (default is
  --with-libc=STRING      override libc C library to STRING (default is
                          Python library directory name (default is "lib")
                          Directory of wheel packages used by ensurepip
                          (default: none)
                          use Editline for backend or disable readline module
  --with-computed-gotos   enable computed gotos in evaluation loop (enabled by
                          default on supported compilers)
                          "install" or "upgrade" using bundled pip (default is
  --with-openssl=DIR      root of the OpenSSL directory
                          Set runtime library directory (rpath) for OpenSSL
                          libraries, no (default): don't set rpath, auto:
                          auto-detect rpath from --with-openssl and
                          pkg-config, DIR: set an explicit rpath
                          override default cipher suites string, python: use
                          Python's preferred selection (default), openssl:
                          leave OpenSSL's defaults untouched, STRING: use a
                          custom string, python and STRING also set TLS 1.2 as
                          minimum TLS version
                          builtin hash modules, md5, sha1, sha256, sha512,
                          sha3 (with shake), blake2
                          better isolate subinterpreters, experimental build
                          mode (default is no)
                          do not build libpythonMAJOR.MINOR.a and do not
                          install python.o (default is yes)

Some influential environment variables:
  MACHDEP     name for machine-dependent library files
  CC          C compiler command
  CFLAGS      C compiler flags
  LDFLAGS     linker flags, e.g. -L if you have libraries in a
              nonstandard directory 
  LIBS        libraries to pass to the linker, e.g. -l
  CPPFLAGS    (Objective) C/C++ preprocessor flags, e.g. -I if
              you have headers in a nonstandard directory 
  CPP         C preprocessor
              Python args for PGO generation task
  PKG_CONFIG  path to pkg-config utility
              directories to add to pkg-config's search path
              path overriding pkg-config's built-in search path

Use these variables to override the choices made by `configure' or to help
it to find libraries and programs with nonstandard names/locations.

Литература: https://tkdocs.com/tutorial/install.html#installlinux